Several trials on vitamin D have been performed since 2004; thus

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Active forms of vitamin D reduced fall risk by 22% (pooled RR 0.78 pandora jewellery, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.94).Conclusions Supplemental vitamin D in a dose of 700 1000 IU a day reduced the risk of falling among older individuals by 19% and to a similar degree as active forms of vitamin D. Doses of supplemental vitamin D of less than 700 IU or serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 60 nmol/l may not reduce the risk of falling among older individuals.IntroductionEach year one in three people aged 65 years or older experiences at least one fall,1 2 3 with 9% of falls leading to an emergency room visit and 5 6% resulting in a fracture.4 Fall prevention has, therefore, become a public health goal, especially as the older proportion of the population grows.Vitamin D has direct effects on muscle strength modulated by specific vitamin D receptors present in human muscle tissue.5 6 Myopathy from severe vitamin D deficiency presents as muscle weakness and pain,7 but is reversible with vitamin D supplementation.6 In several trials of older individuals at risk for vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D supplementation improved strength, function, and balance in a dose related pattern.4 8 9 Most importantly, these benefits translated into a reduction in falls.4 8 9Overall, however, results have been mixed for fall prevention with vitamin D; for example, several trials of vitamin D have had non significant results. This may be explained in part by the use of low doses of vitamin D, as suggested by a 2004 meta analysis of limited data from three trials on supplemental vitamin D.10 Other potential explanations include the availability of vitamin D over the counter for the control group; the use of an open trial design, which biases trial results towards the null11; and incomplete assessment, inadequate definition, or incomplete ascertainment of falls during the entire observation period,12 again introducing a bias towards the null.Several trials on vitamin D have been performed since 2004; thus, the importance of vitamin D dose for the prevention of falls should be reassessed.

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pandora essence We telephoned those who did not opt out and asked them to complete the survey by phone. We excluded people who had dementia or could not participate in a telephone interview because of communication barriers (hearing, language). Potential participants were telephoned up to five times before being dropped from the survey pool pandora essence.

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